Sarf

١٨- قاعدة شَرَائِفُ

If:  Word is on the scale of مفاعل Harf illah occurs after the alif Harf illah is not a root letter Then Change the harf illah to a hamza Example: عَجَاوِزُ ——> عَجَائِزُ شَرَايِفُ ——> شَرَائِفُ رَسَاالُ ——> رَسَائِلُ Note: The changing of a root letter which is harf illah to a hamza is rare Example:

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١٦- قاعدة أدْلٍ و أَظْبٍ

If:  a و occurs after a dhamma in the lam kalimah of an ism Then: The dhamma before is changed to a kasra The و becomes a yaa saakin and is dropped[1] Example: أدْلُوٌ ——> أدْلٍ تَعَلُّوٍ ——> تَعَلٍّ تَعَالُوٍ ——> تَعَالٍ If:  a ي occurs after a dhamma in then ل of ism  then: The dhamma is changed with a kasra Then

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١٣- قاعدة قِيَام و حِيَاض

If: A waw is in the ayn kalima of the masdar after a kasra A waw is in the ayn kalimah of a plural Then It becomes a ي if it’s verb also takes the rules of ta’leel Example: قِوَاما ——> قِيَاما صِوَاما ——> صِيَاما حِوَاض ——> حِيَاض جِوَاض ——> جِيَاض Note: قِوَاما from the masdar of قَاوَمَ will

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١٠- قاعدة يَدْعُوْ و يَرْمِيْ

1) If: Waw or yaa occur after a damaa or kasra[1] They occur in the lam kalimah in يفعل تفعل أفعل or نفعل Then Drop their harakah and give sakin Example: يَدْعُوُ ——> يَدْعُوْ يَرْمِيُ ——> يَرْمِيْ (2) If: Waw mutaharrik occurs after a damma and before another waw sakin Or yaa mutaharrik occurs after a kasra and

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قاعدة قُلْنَ و طُلْنَ و خِفْنَ و بِعْنَ

Rule applicable for madi majhool scales from جمع المؤنث الغائب onwards only. If:  the waw has a fatha on the ayn kalimah[1] Then  Give the faa kalimah a dammah  Drop the waw Example:  قُوِلْنَ ——> قُلْنَ قُوِلْتَ ——> قُلْتَ قُوِلْتُمَا ——> قُلْتُمَا قُوِلْتُمْ ——> قُلْتُمْ قُوِلْتِ ——> قُلْتِ قُوِلْتُمَا ——> قُلْتُمَا قُوِلْتُنَّ ——> قُلْتُنَّ قُوِلْتُ ——> قُلْتُ

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٨- قاعدة يَقُوْلُ و يَـبِيْعُ

If: before a yaa or waw there is a sakin Then Swap the harakats of the و or ي with the sukoon before it Example: يَقْوُلُ ——> يَقُوْلُ يَبيِعُ ——> يَـبِيْعُ If: The waw or yaa has a fatha before the yaa or waw there is a sakin Then change the waw or yaa to a alif Example: يُقْوَلُ

٨- قاعدة يَقُوْلُ و يَـبِيْعُ Read More »

٧- قاعدة قَالَ و بَاعَ

If: a fatha comes after و or ي with harakat Then Change to alif Example: قَوَلَ ——> قَالَ بَيَعَ ——> بَاعَ دَعَوَا ——> دَعَا رَمَيَ ——> رَمَى The conditions for this change to take place are that the waw and yaa do not occur: In the faa kalimah e.g. تَوَعَّدَ , تَوَفَّى and تَيَسَّرَ In the Ayn lafeef[1] e.g. طَوَى and حَيِيَ Before the alif of تثنية e.g. دَعَوَا and رَمَيَا

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٥- قاعدة أُجُوْهٍ و إِشَاحٍ

If: A و with a dhamma or kasra in the beginning of the word  Or a waw with a dhamma in the middle then Permissible to change the waw to a ء Example: وُجُوْهٌ ——> أُجُوْهٌ وِشَاحٌ ——> إِشَاحٌ وُقَّتَتْ ——> أُقَّتَتْ أَدْوُرٌ ——> أَدْءُرٌ Note: it is rare to change a و with a fatha to a ء Example: وَحَدٌ

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٣- قاعدة مِيْعَادٍ و مُوْسِرٍ و قُوْتِلَ

If: Waw sakin occurs after kasra  Then Change to ي Example: مِوْعَادٌ ——> مِيْعَادٌ If Yaa sakin occurs after a dammah Then Change to a waw Example: مُيْسِرٍ ——> مُوْسِرٍ If Alif occurs after a dammah Then Change to a waw Example: قُاتِلَ ——> قُوْتِلَ If Alif occurs after a kasra Then Change to a yaa

٣- قاعدة مِيْعَادٍ و مُوْسِرٍ و قُوْتِلَ Read More »

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